Scientists examine: Why do men sometimes show their opponents signs of respect after a fight?

first_imgLinkedIn Share on Facebook Share Pinterest Emailcenter_img Share on Twitter PsyPost interviewed the study’s corresponding author, Nicole Barbaro. To learn more about the study, read her explanation of the research below:PsyPost: Why were you interested in this topic?Barbaro: There were two primary reasons we were interested in this topic. One reason being that no research had yet been conducted on post-fight respect, or post-fight reconciliation behavior, in humans. A bit a research had been done on reconciliatory behaviors following combative behavior in chimpanzees and other primates, but the vast majority of the human research on fighting and combative behavior has been focused on formidability assessments and the benefits of dominance within competitive contexts. The second reason being that we were interested in explaining a real-life phenomenon commonly seen in combat sports, such as mixed martial arts (e.g., UFC). It is incredibly common to see that two opponents — who had spent upwards of 25 minutes attempting to knock out the other — shake hands, hug, and praise one another at the conclusion of the fight. So, we were interested in whether there are reliable predictors of displaying what we call “post-fight respect “given certain attributes of the fight and the combatants. What should the average person take away from your study?Our research includes three studies (two self-report studies, and one behavioral study) to investigate whether features of the fight and combatants—fight outcome, use of “dirty” fight tactics, size asymmetries, fighter ranking, and presence of witnesses—predicted whether an individual’s anticipates receiving respect from their opponent and the likelihood that an individual would actually display respect to their opponent following a one-on-one fight. Across the three studies there are two major findings. One being that, on average, individuals expect that they should receive post-fight respect more often than they are willing to actually display post-fight respect. The second being that size asymmetries and use of “dirty” fight tactics appear to be the most reliable predictors of both receiving and displaying post-fight respect. The latter finding accords with much previous research on human combat, such that (1) men (and to a lesser degree, women) can very accurately assess the physical strength and general formidability of other men visually, and (2) cross-cultural research shows that there is general agreement on what type of fight tactics, or behaviors, are acceptable for one-on-one fights. Given the previous work in this area, our findings mesh well, and also contribute novel findings in an under-researched domain of psychology. Based on our findings, we suggest that displaying post-fight respect to an opponent reflects positive valuations of the opponent’s fighting performance—that is, if an opponent is much smaller than you (a fighting “handicap” of sorts) and fights a “clean” fight, then your display of respect is a way of praising their good fighting performance.Are there any major caveats? What questions still need to be addressed?Our research is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to understand the psychology underlying the phenomenon we call “post-fight respect” in humans. Replication and extension of our findings are important for a better and more comprehensive understanding of post-fight behavior in humans, more generally. There are several unanswered questions that still need to be addressed. For instance, the relationship between the two combatants may be important for displays of post-fight behavior–Are the combatants friends? Enemies? Strangers? Another potential predictor we are interested in looking into is whether the fight itself resolved the issue that lead to the escalation in the first place—for instance, we suspect that post-fight respect may potentially signal that the conflict between the combatants has been resolved.Is there anything else you would like to add?Humans—and in particular, men—have a long evolutionary history of fighting and combat. And a wealth of previous research supports this notion, including findings that the events leading to combat are quite predictable, that men have the capacity to evaluate the formidability of other men, and that there is cross-cultural agreement on acceptable fighting behaviors. Our study adds to this area or research and shows displays of post-fight respect may also be predictable given features of the fight and the combatants. Perhaps most exciting, are the future research opportunities that our findings may stimulate within this domain given the results of our research.Nicole Barbaro is currently a PhD student of Evolutionary Psychology at Oakland University. Her research focuses on romantic attachment dynamics and the predictors and consequences of aggressive behavior. More information about Nicole’s research can be found on her website (www.nicolebarbaro.com), or you can follow her research on Twitter @NicoleBarbaroThe study, “Post-Fight Respect Signals Valuations of Opponent’s Fighting Performance“, was also co-authored by Michael N. Pham, Justin K. Mogilski, Todd K. Shackelford, and Virgil Zeigler-Hill. It was published March 1, 2017. A new study provides some clues about when and why some men show signs of respect after a fight.Researchers from Oakland University said their findings indicate that humans may have evolved psychological mechanisms to signal evaluations of fighting performance. The study, published in the peer-reviewed Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, examined what factors could predict signals of respect, such as shaking hands with an opponent.The researchers used questionnaires and an in-lab fight simulation game to investigate when men expect to receive post-fight respect from an opponent and when they themselves display respect for their opponent. They found men expected to receive respect if they win the fight, fight a more formidable opponent, and fight fair. Likewise, individuals are willing to signal respect for their opponent when they fight a less formidable combatant and if their opponent does not fight “dirty.” On the other hand, the presence or absence of witnesses appeared to have no effect on post-fight respect.last_img read more

Spaceport America Announces Test Operations Of ABL Space Systems

first_img“Spaceport America is providing testing support for a variety of commercial and government clients,” Dan Hicks, Spaceport America CEO said. “With our excellent staff, near perfect climate and restricted airspace, we are a leader in providing service for the space industry.” SPACEPORT AMERICA News: “Spaceport America provided the perfect location and support staff for us to test the E2 rocket engine,” ABL CFO Dan Piemont explained. “Our team did a great job rapidly activating our deployable test site, and we are happy with how E2 performed. This campaign was an important step toward bringing the RS1 launch vehicle to market.” Spaceport America is the first purpose-built commercial spaceport in the world. The FAA-licensed launch complex, situated on 18,000 acres adjacent to the U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range in southern New Mexico, has a rocket friendly environment of 6,000 square miles of restricted airspace, low population density, a 12,000-foot spaceway, and 340 days of sunshine and low humidity. ABOUT ABL SPACE SYSTEMS ABOUT SPACEPORT AMERICA When operational, RS1 will fill an important role in the global launch vehicle market, providing bulk deployment of cubesats, deployment of three to six larger, more capable satellites, or dedicated launch of single satellites with aggressive mission requirements. ABL Space Systems, a company founded by former SpaceX engineers, recently completed a successful test campaign of its E2 rocket engine at Spaceport America. ABL Space Systems was founded by former SpaceX engineering leaders in 2017 to develop low-cost launch vehicles for the small satellite industry. ABL is headquartered in El Segundo, California, where it has 60,000 square feet of facilities for research, development, and production. ABL is a team of over 40 world-class aerospace engineers with experience at SpaceX, Virgin Orbit, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Pratt + Whitney, and elsewhere. ABL is a privately-owned corporation backed by a premier group of private equity investors. To learn more, visit ablspacesystems.comlast_img read more

A message from India

first_imgTo access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week. Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletterslast_img

Obituary: George Walker

first_imgWould you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletters To access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week.last_img

Syriza Bins Piraeus Port Sale, Targets Shipping Sector

first_imgGreece’s new government led by the left-wing party Syriza plans to stop the sale of a majority stake in the Port of Piraeus, for which the old government already shortlisted China Ocean Shipping Company (Cosco) and four other companies, Reuters reports.    Thodoris Dritsas, Syriza party member believed to be the next minister for shipping, told Reuters that the Cosco deal is going to be ”reviewed to the benefit of Greek people.”The previous government planned to sell a 67 percent stake in Pireaus Port Authority as part of the privatisation plan created with international lenders.Cosco currently operates two piers at the Piraeus Container Terminal, and has recently started the construction of the third pier.During the Pier III inauguration ceremony, the Prime Minister of Greece Antonis Samaras described the PCT project as the most important investment in Greece in the last decade.Prior to the elections, Syriza issued a policy paper which insisted on a ”new national agreement” with the shipping industry, including cutting a number of tax breaks. Syriza also said that the shipping sector will have to bear the heaviest burden to lift the country out of the crisis.This turn in the attitude towards domestic shipping prompted several Greek shippers to warn that this new course set out by Syriza might lead to higher taxes which the shipping industry cannot afford.Some shipowners threatened to limit their domestic operations or move altogether to another country if the deal with the new government is not reached.World Maritime News Stafflast_img read more

Grenfell – a question of trust?

first_imgColm Lacey will be speaking at the session ’What is the impact on construction post-Grenfell? at Building Live. Book your place here It is more than a year since the Grenfell Tower fire, and the enormity of what happened that night continues to reveal itself on a daily basis through the inquiry.One particular report from the night of the disaster often returns to my mind. Firefighters in the tower, unable to effectively use their radios due to the concrete mass of the building and sheer volume of radio traffic, were reduced to receiving updates on the location of trapped residents on scraps of paper written in the command unit outside and ferried into the burning building by runners. For all the modern safety systems and processes in place, dealing with the situation had become practically medieval within hours.Social trauma on this scale illuminates society like a crime scene photographer’s flashbulb. How did a modern, deeply regulated state allow 72 people to be burned to death inside their own homes? And what responsibility do we in the built environment industries, be it through action or complacency, bear for what happened? It seems certain that the formal industry response to Grenfell will focus heavily on regulation. Rightly so. At heart this was a failure of the performance of a building, and that should be controllable.“Perhaps a more useful focus for the industry is not so much the mediation of trust through regulation, but on the promotion of trustworthiness”But while the lengthy process of technical enquiry rolls on, there is much we can do to address some more deep-seated failings that have been exposed. Chief among these, for me at least, is the way trust is applied between the various actors in the development process. Professional scepticismA common reading of Grenfell is that it was caused by an excess of trust and a paucity of scrutiny. The wrong material was installed on a building and, for a variety of reasons, the people who should have noticed didn’t. Each actor in the system placed too much trust in the next, and the chain of scrutiny collapsed. Yet for many working in the built environment, this analysis simply doesn’t go deep enough. The development process is unique in that it exists in an almost constant state of professional scepticism. As a project passes from client to design team to contractor to subcontractor, it often does so with the implicit acceptance that none of these parties fully understand the true intent of the other. Accordingly, elements are repeatedly redesigned or reworked at each stage, often to the detriment of the job at hand.So the role of trust, or lack thereof, is a complex issue in development and construction. This is reflected in the drafting of regulations, to such an extent that they can sometimes be rendered pointless. It is notable that despite all scrutiny to date, it appears we still do not fully know, without question, whether the installed cladding system on Grenfell was legal and certifiable under the extant Building Regulations regime.Perhaps a more useful focus for the industry is not so much the mediation of trust through regulation, but on the promotion of trustworthiness. The philosopher Onora O’Neill defines trustworthiness as a combination of competency, honesty and reliability. All three must be present simultaneously if something is to be trustworthy.In the most recent Ipsos Mori Veracity Index, those surveyed ranked almost all of the major stakeholders in a typical development project below “the ordinary man/woman on the street” in terms of trustworthiness. The development industry itself has a poor track record of trusting external sources, even if those sources in themselves have no reason to be deemed untrustworthy. Grenfell provides a prime example. Reports suggest the Grenfell Action Group, a local residents group, approved the initial plans for fire-resistant zinc cladding but this was later changed in production to cheaper aluminium cladding. Once work was complete, the group repeatedly informed the building managers and owners that they felt it was not safe and that tenants would be vulnerable in the event of a fire. For whatever reason, they were deemed an untrustworthy source of information at that time – their advice was not acted upon. So perhaps if we are to choose one thing which the development industry can take from this horrific event, it is that it should pay far greater heed to O’Neill’s components of trustworthiness.How it should workOn a recent trip to Belfast, I saw a small example of this in action. I met an architect who had been brought out of contented retirement by a local landowner to design the extension and refurbishment of a set of buildings he had bought in the city’s Cathedral Quarter. Many years before, both had been early adopters of what was then an unfashionable, dangerous area and moved their successful businesses there. Both felt a deep obligation to deliver something that offered more to the surrounding place than the building itself.The scheme they created was put together by local contractors known to both, using decent-quality materials, with a good proportion locally sourced. It was a carefully designed, authentic, locally relevant development, which reflected the pride and skill of the people who designed and built it. It was competent, reliable and honest.Perhaps what this suggests is that if we are to genuinely improve on the trustworthiness of the development industry, we must reintroduce some humanity and stewardship into what has become a regulatory, cost-driven development process. If Grenfell has taught us one thing, it is that the absence of a consistent guiding hand in design and construction, and a searing focus on the needs of the end user, can lead to developments veering dreadfully off track. The awful irony of Grenfell is that the greatest cost of all was never considered. Colm Lacey is chief executive of Brick by Brick, a development company established by Croydon councillast_img read more

‘Smallest preemie ever’ born at Maryland hospital finally goes home

first_img SHARE ‘Smallest preemie ever’ born at Maryland hospital finally goes home Published: August 9, 2017 8:29 PM EDT Do you see a typo or an error? Let us know. ANNAPOLIS, Md. (CBS NEW YORK) A little baby is finally home with her family after spending the first few months in intensive care.Because of a medical issue her mother, Claudia Cruz, was induced into labor at just 24 weeks back in March.When Ariana Cruz-Gutierrez was born, Anne Arundel Medical Center said she weighed only 12 ounces — or about as much as three sticks of butter.In fact, a hospital official confirmed Ariana is actually the smallest preemie ever to survive at the center’s Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.It’ll be at least 18 months before doctors can determine whether Ariana will face physical or intellectual challenges, according to the Capital Gazette.But five months later the AAMC shared a photo of Ariana who has grown to 4 pounds, 15 ounces and left the hospital for the very first time.last_img read more

Swedish testing

first_imgINTERFLEET Technology is carrying out testing of Alstom X40 and X60 trains being supplied to Sweden.During June three weeks of dynamic testing were carried out on X40 double-deck EMUs for SJ inter-regional services, using instrumented wheelsets with accelerometers to assess the behaviour of a moving train. ’We go all over Sweden to find representative sections of track so that we can replicate all the situations the train might be exposed to’, said Interfleet’s test centre manager, Martin Bäfverfeldt.Interfleet is carrying out pre-delivery testing in Germany of X60 suburban trains for Stockholm Transport. Acceptance testing will take place in Sweden during October and November, and the first of the trains will enter service in autumn 2005.last_img

Kapsch CarrierCom to upgrade Infrabel communications network

first_imgBELGIUM: Infrastructure manager Infrabel has awarded Kapsch CarrierCom a 15-year framework agreement covering the migration of its GSM-R communications network from R99/TDM to R4/VoIP and the provision of 12 years of maintenance.This is intended to provide the functionality and resilience needed for the use of ETCS Level 2 over GPRS. The deployment of redundant voice core platforms for the live and testbed networks is expected to significantly increase the availability of the network, with breakdowns lasting a few seconds rather than several hours. The impact of software upgrades on operations would also be reduced. Infrabel said the main challenge would be to minimise the number and the duration of interventions required to undertake the migration, and to minimise the risk of affecting voice and data communications during the work. ‘Kapsch is the main GSM-R core network supplier for main railway networks in Europe and proved to be the perfect partner for a seamless migration to the Release 4 (R4) technology’, said Vincent Caudron, GSM-R project lead at Infrabel, when the contract was announced on April 30.last_img read more

Nigeria to pay up arrears to former Niger Delta militants

first_imgLIONEL HEALING/AFP/Getty ImagesThe amnesty deal signed some 8 years back gives each ex militant in Nigeria about two $ 213 dollars monthly stipend and some vocational training. But erratic payments have been at the center of wrangles between the Nigerian government and ex-militants.President Buhari initially suspended it and only resumed payments after some protests from the ex-militants.Although some payments were made in January but the ex-militants complained some allowances were omitted.Attacks by militants have cut Nigeria’s crude oil exports by 700,000 barrels per day.The government has been in talks with various groups in the Niger delta, however, those talks have not reached a final conclusion, it has yielded some relative calm and production output has been recovering.But the militants are accusing government of dishonesty, and recently threatened to resume attacks oil pipelines.It is not clear if some ex combatants are among those issuing threats but the directive to settle all outstanding areas and call for calm suggest they could be.last_img read more